Why use light for telecommunications?
Why transmit data using light instead of, for example, electric pulses? Simple: light is really fast. The speed of light in a vacuum is some 300,000 kilometers per second, and just one-third slower, or about 200,000 kilometers per second, when traveling through a fiber-optic cable. There are some coax cables that perform better than this, but these coax transmission lines need many more amplifiers than the optical fiber lines, making optical fiber technology the fastest transmission solution for long-distance lines. An optical fiber has a glass core through which light travels. Around this core is another layer of glass called the ‘cladding’, which ensures light doesn’t escape from the core. An optical technique is known as ‘Total Internal Reflection’ keeps the light inside the core. A protective polymer coating protects the glass of the cladding from moisture, dirt, and damage.
What are the differences between FTTH and FTTN?
FTTH (Fiber to the Home) connection goes directly to each residence, offering a higher bandwidth however It’s expensive to install. FTTN (Fiber to the Node or Neighborhood) starts by running fiber until the node, and finally to the customer, through what is usually called “last mile” service, which can be achieved with copper or other types of wire. FTTN systems just like FTTC systems, often use the coaxial or twisted-pair cable in order to achieve delivery to multiple customers.
Is fiber better than ADSL copper?
Both fiber and ADSL can be excellent choices. ADSL means Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line and it transmits data along already existing copper cables by telephone lines. That way, copper cables started to be designed for voice transmission and have a limited bandwidth while fiber optic cables provide more bandwidth for carrying more data than copper cables of the same diameter. Within the fiber cable family, single-mode fiber delivers up to twice the throughput of multimode fiber. Although one of the main benefits of fiber being the support of bigger data bandwidth, copper is still cheaper because of the telephone landline is already in place, ready to be used.